Introduction to System Administration Airport

Air conditioning system is a process cools / heats the air so it can reach the desired temperature and humidity / required. Moreover, regulating the flow of air and cleanliness.

Air refresher system is generally divided into two main sections, namely:

a. Air refresher for comfort

Freshen room air to provide comfort to jobs for people who do certain activities.

b. Air refresher for industry

Room air refreshing as required by the process, materials, equipment or goods in them.

Why is the air needs to be organized?

If someone is in a closed room for long periods of time, then at some point he will feel less comfortable, so if we are in open space during the day with sunshine on our bodies will feel less comfortable. This was attributable to two main issues namely temperature (temperature) and moisture (humidity) air is not

accordance with the requirements of the body.

Wherever air needs to be organized / regulated?

Office Space

Air Refresher office building is needed to give comfort working environment for employees. In many ways it was also held air refresher to protect office equipment, there should be regulating temperature and humidity or air freshener for each class room with the same activity.


Hotel consists of living room, common rooms such as living room, dining room and so forth. Living room refreshment systems should be equipped with temperature control and moisture, thus the temperature and humidity can be tailored to the needs, such as age, gender of the guests and so forth.

Shopping center


Air refresher system for industrial purposes is divided into two groups, namely air refresher for comfort, to give comfort working environment for employees; and refreshment industry to regulate air temperature and kelembababan from the air that is used in the production process, storage, engine work environment, etc. .


Hospital different from other building types, where the environment must be maintained to keep it clean to prevent the spread and growth of pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, the available space should be divided into several regions, such that no mixing of air containing the germs of disease.



Air freshener or commonly called Air Conditioner (AC) was designed using materials or cooling element (refrigerant) that has mechanical properties to be included in an air circulation system for circulation through the main components of toners that have been made in such a way so it can suck or absorbs heat air inside a room and move the temperature of the hot air out of the room, so can achieve an ideal air freshener.

Good air freshener should have the following requirements:

1. May set and adjust the temperature inside the room.

2. Can maintain and regulate humidity.

3. Equip with good air exchange.

4. Can be re-circulated air that already exist in the space already provided air conditioning.

5. Can filter and clean the air.

Circle of Refrigeration (Refrigerant Cycle)

All parts of the refrigeration system is similar, except ukuranukurannya, depending on the cooling frame. Cooling circle is a series of exchanges of parts of the cooling material, cooling the material in this process was changed from liquid to vapor form and then processed back into a liquid form. Power in the form of heat which transforms the liquid into vapor is a form of heat is heat that is pulled from the air within the room desired.

Pendinginanterdiri circle of 4 processes, namely:

1. Pressure rise was obtained from the compressor

2. Eliminating the heat inside Condenser

3. Getting the heat inside the evaporator.

4. Eliminating the pressure inside the capillary tube

Basically, the cooling loop consists of two processes of heat transfer and two pressure exchange process, namely:


Compressor is a mechanical device that can pull the gas cooling and then distributed with a higher pressure to the Condenser. When the compressor is usually driven by electric motors.


Condenser is an interesting tool both for obvious heat or imperceptibly from gas that has been pressed, and move kesuatu air or water cooling medium, so in other words, the gas was withdrawn by the condenser


Evaporator is a useful tool to suck the heat from its surroundings by the evaporation of liquid refrigerant that has been mixed in it, so the liquid is transferred in form of gas.

Capillary tube

This tool is a filler that is placed under the Condenser meeting, and the tool is useful for collecting the liquid refrigerant.

MAIN COMPONENTS air freshener


Compressors are the heart of the air conditioning system, compressor handy to suck the refrigerant vapor from the steam reservoir space. When inside the steam reservoir, the pressure sought to be consistently low, so that refrigerant is always in a state of steam and low temperature. Then when in the compressor, the refrigerant pressure is increased to facilitate disbursement returned. The energy required for compression is given by an electric motor that drives the compressor. Number of refrigerant that circulates in the refrigeration cycle depends on the amount of inhaled vapor into the compressor.

Two main types of compressors:

1. Positive compressor, whereby suction gas into the cylinder and dikompresikan so that there is an increase of pressure.

2. Compressor non-positive, where the gas sucked into the flow is accelerated by an impeller which then converts the kinetic energy to raise the pressure.

Four types of refrigeration compressors of the most common are:

o reciprocating compressors (reciprocating compressors)

o screw compressors (rotary screw compressors)

o Centrifugal Compressors

o The compressor blade (vane)


Condenser is useful for the condensation and liquefaction refrigerant vapor return. Refrigerant vapor pressure and high temperature at the end of compression can be easily withdrawn by cooling it with water cooling (with air cooling air cooling systems) that exist at normal temperatures. In other words, submit a refrigerant vapor heat (latent heat of condensation) to the cold water in the condenser, which condenses and becomes liquid. So because of the cooling water absorbs heat from the refrigerant, so it will be hot at the time of exit from the condenser. During the refrigerant changes phase from liquid to vapor phase, where there is a mixture of refrigerants in vapor and liquid phase, the pressure (condensing pressure) and temperature (condensation temperature) constant. Heat is removed from the condenser is the amount of heat from air flowing through the evaporator. Perfect refrigerant vapor to liquid within the condenser and then flowed into the capillary tube / expansion valve.

The types of condensers:

Horizontal Condenser Tubes and Pipes

The characteristics of condenser tubes and pipes are as follows:

* • Can be made with finned cooling pipe, so the relatively small size and lightweight.
* • Water pipe can be made easier.
* • a simple shape (horizontal) and easy installation.
* • coolant pipes can be cleaned easily.

Condenser tube and coil

The characteristics of the tube and condenser coil are as follows:

a. The price is cheap because it is easy to produce.

b. Compact due to the vertical position and easily pemasanganya.

c. Virtually impossible to change the coolant pipes, while the cleaning is done by using detergents.

Double Tube Condenser

The characteristics of the double pipe condenser types are as follows:

1. Simple construction with a reasonable price.

2. Can achieve Supercooled condition because the flow direction opposite refrigerant and cooling water.

3. Cooling water use is relatively small.

4. Difficulties in cleaning the pipe; be used detergents.

5. Inspection of pipe corrosion and damage can not be implemented; replacement of pipes is also difficult to be carried out.


Pressure liquid refrigerant is lowered in the expansion valve, evenly distributed by a distributor into the evaporator refrigerant pipes, refrigerant then evaporates and absorbs heat from room air that flowed through the outer surface of the pipe evaporator. The liquid refrigerant evaporated gradually due to receive as much heat latent heat of vaporization, during the evaporation process, inside the pipe will have a mixture of refrigerant in liquid and gas phase. Evaporation temperature and evaporation in a state of constant pressure at the time it occurred. Evaporator is a heat exchanger is the most important role in the refrigeration cycle, namely mendinginkanmedia surroundings.

Expansion Valve

To decrease the pressure of liquid refrigerant (high pressure) that melted in the condenser, so that can easily evaporate, then used a tool called the expansion valve or pipe kapilar. Expansion valve is designed for a particular pressure drop. Expansion valve which is used is a thermostatic expansion valve that can regulate the flow rate of refrigerant, namely that the degree of superheated vapor refrigerant in the evaporator can be cultivated constant. In the small air fresheners, used as a capillary tube expansion valve replacement.

The liquid refrigerant flowing into the evaporator, the pressure was down and received heat of vaporization from the air, which evaporates in berangsurangsur. Furthermore, the cycle of the above occurs repeatedly.

Kind of the most popular expansion valve to the valve system is berkendali refrigasi heat up, which is normal with thermostatic expansion valve. Thermostatic expansion valves regulate the flow rate of liquid refrigerant that magnitude is proportional to the rate of evaporation in the evaporator.

Expansion valve, evaporator can always arrange to work so that obtained the maximum efficiency of refrigeration cycle. If the load is cooling down, or if the valves open wider expansion, the refrigerant evaporates inside the evaporator is not perfect, so that the refrigerant is sucked into the compressor containing the liquid. If it happened in a long time, some steam will melt again, and compressor valves will be damaged.


Refrigerants very important role for the engine air freshener, so in choosing a type of refrigerant to be most appropriate to the type of compressor is used, and characteristics termodinamikanya inter alia, the evaporation temperature and pressure of the evaporation and condensation temperature and condensation pressure.

Terms of refrigerants

Terms of refrigerants for refrigeration units are as follows:

a) Pressure penguapannya must be high.

b) condensing pressure is not too high.

c) Latent Heat of penguapannnya must be high.

d) specific volume (especially in the gas phase) is quite small.

e) The coefficient of performance must be high.

f) high thermal conductivity.

g) low viscosity in liquid phase or gas phase.

h) Constant dielektrika of refrigerants which are small, a large electrical resistance, and does not cause corrosion on electrical insulators maaterial.

i) refrigerants should stsbil and does not react with the material used, so also does not cause corrosion.

j) refrigerants should not be toxic and odorless stimulating.

k) refrigerants should not be flammable and explosive.

l) refrigerants should be easily detected, if such a leak.

m) The price is inexpensive and easily obtained.

n) Eco-Friendly


Air containing water vapor or moist air is called the wet air. Meanwhile, dry air is air that did not contain water vapor. Dry air has a composition of 78.09% N2 by volume and 75 weight, 53%, O2 20.95%, and heavy volume of 23.14%, Ar, 0.93% and heavy volume of 1.28%; CO2, volume 0, 03 and 0.05% weight.

Vapor compression cycle (SKUs), divided into two categories:

1. SKUs (Standard Steam Conversion Cycles)

2. SKUM (Steam Cycle Modifications Conversions)


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